Please read this discussion and respond in 250 words. The response can agree or disagree to this discussion. 1 source of reference not older than 5 years and APA format. I personally do believe that women should still be recommended to get genetic testing done, however it is always up to the patient. According to the American journal of Managed Care, a study revealed that sixty-eight percent more women in the study were found to have pathogenic variants (PVs) than those in the control group. Twenty-eight total pathogenic variants were found in this group of women (Kurian et al., 2020). Having a breast cancer diagnosis puts a woman at risk for other cancers. Some of those include uterine, ovarian, thyroid cancer, as well sarcoma, melanoma of the skin, and acute myeloid leukemia (American Cancer Society, 2020). Conducting genetic testing for other cancers could allow for prophylactic removal and treatment, such as that of ovarian or uterine cancer. While there are benefits to the PSA screening for prostate cancer there are harms to it as well. There are three main harms that should be considered. They are false positives or negatives, overdiagnosis, and harms from treatments, such as from surgery or radiation. False positive or negative results can result in confusion or anxiety in the patient. False positives could lead to unneeded prostate biopsies, which can have low risks of pain at the site, infection and or bleeding, where false negatives may give that false sense of security with believing they do not have cancer when they actually do. Over diagnosing or overtreatment is considered harmful because most prostate cancers may never cause problems, they are typical very slow growing or don’t grow or spread. Surgery and radiation can lead to incontinence and erectile dysfunction (CDC, 2021). I believe that the patient should know their options on testing or not testing as well as the risks and benefits and make a choice on whether to test their PSA levels or not. The diagnosis of kidney disease is so very important. Chronic kidney disease is categorized by the level of renal dysfunction, this is measured by using the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as well as the albuminuria. There are five levels of kidney dysfunction by the GFR and 3 levels of the albuminuria categories. The GFR levels are G1-G5 and the albuminuria levels are A1-A3 (Fraser & Blakeman, 2016). This allows for patients to be put into different categories and provide better diagnosis and allow for better treatment. In my personal opinion I think that this has allowed for a better and improved recognition of the disease. Reference American Cancer Society. (2020, June 9). Second Cancers After Breast Cancer. American Cancer Society. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/living-as-a-breast-cancer-survivor/second-cancers-after-breast-cancer.html. CDC. (2021, August 23). What Are The Benefits and Harms of Screening for Prostate Cancer? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/prostate/basic_info/benefits-harms.htm. Fraser, S. D., & Blakeman, T. (2016, August 17). Chronic Kidney Disease: Identification and Management in Primary Care. Pragmatic and observational research. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5087766/. Kurian, A. W., Bernhisel, R., Larson, K., Caswell-Jin, J. L., Shadyab, A. H., Ochs-Balcom, H., & Stefanick, M. L. (2020, March 10). Prevalence of Pathogenic Variants in Cancer Susceptibility Genes Among Women with Postmenopausal Breast Cancer. JAMA. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064876/.
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