MY RESEARCH QUESTION IS: How does divorce influence children’s social development? Week 7 Information Literacy Assignment
Use the same topic that you will also be using for your Research Question Paper assignment, identify key words and phrases to identify credible sources and frame a research question. Then, write a short paper comparing / contrasting scholarly and non-scholarly works and use appropriate documentation of sources on the topic.
1. Using the same topic you will use for their Research Question Paper assignment, research at least 5 web sites, 5 scholarly sources, and 5 newspaper articles related to the topic.
2. List key words and phrases you have used to “flesh out” the topic and what results each key word or phrase search yielded (i.e. bias, data, etc).
3. Identify one issue within that topic and phrase a research question suitable for writing a research proposal on the topic.
4. Write a brief paper (3-4 page paper in APA style including in-text citations and a reference page) in which you explain the following:
How did you narrow down your search to a specific topic suitable for this paper?
Which key words or phrases were most beneficial to finding credible sources?
What seemed to be the most extreme or polarizing issues of this topic?
What sites seem to present the most credible information?
How did you determine what made a site credible?
How are they different from the sites that are not as credible or more polarized?
What key words or phrases led you to the more credible sites?
How did you narrow down your key word search?
How were the scholarly sources different or similar to the internet sources?
d. How did you come to choose and refine your research question?
A lot of information regarding the effects of divorce on child social development is available in the websites, newspaper articles and books. In order to come up with the specific suitable for this paper, I wanted to establish the different stages of a child’s social development, and the impacts of various issues in children’s lives. Social development mostly regards the relationship of a child with other people, even in adult years. The behavior of a person in an intimate relationship is highly dependent on some aspects of his or her childhood. The need for intimacy by human beings continues to develop as a person grows older. There are six important elements that constitute the nature of relationships people engage. These elements include care, knowledge, interdependence, trust, mutuality, commitment and interdependence. Without any of these elements, a relationship may be considered incomplete, and a feeling of dissatisfaction is present in the partners. Divorce is one of the pertinent issues that affect the social development of a child. The keywords in my research were divorce, children development, social relationships and children social development.
Parenting, cultural background, among other childhood aspects have been connected to determination of future relationships of the child with other people. Parents play an important role in the development of their children. The environment in which they expose their children is a key factor in determining how a child will attain the six elements of a good social and intimate relationship. Children require a lot of moral development at their young age so that they mold their future, and become important people in the society (Neihart, & National Association for Gifted Children (U.S.), 2002). On the cognitive level, moral development of a child regards the basis on which the children are in the capacity to make judgments that a certain act is right or wrong. Psychological research on children’s social and moral development has yielded a wealth of evidence in support of the propositions that humans are reasoning beings (Young, & Alexander, 2012). They reason within a realm that can be labeled oral about welfare, justice and rights in ways that involves and concerns dignity, freedom, worth and treatment of people. For example, children at a young age start forming judgments entailing distinctions among different domains of social interactions (New & Cochran, 2006). Ideally, a child should be given a solid foundation so that he/she becomes a morally solid person. There are five stages of moral growth in children, which are:- infancy, toddlerhood, preschoolers, stage four, which includes those with seven to ten years and the fifth stage is the preteens and teens. At infancy, a child does not have the ability to differentiate between the right and wrong. Toddlerhood begins at eighteen months where a child realizes that other people have rights and needs too. Preschoolers have the ability to discern the right and wrong, and this is the age of three to seven years. This is the main stage in which they should be guided and the right steps are taken for a strong moral foundation (Ask DrSears, 2013).
Theories on child development
I had to research on different theories and determine the credibility of an author. For example the credibility of Jean Piaget allows him to engage in research for children development. Jean Piaget is one of the theorists who focused his research on children and concluded that there are two main stages in which the moral judgment of children develops. These stages came up after he made his observations on children who were playing games like marbles. In addition, he observed the way children made judgments of characters during story telling sessions. He introduced the overlapping stages as moral realism and autonomous morality. His idea was that children have different thoughts when compared to adults, and milestones in the mental development of children make childhood be observed as a unique stage in human development (Belknap, 2000).
The first stage, being moral realism occurs to many children at the age of five. It is at this stage that children regard behavior correct because it conforms to the expectations of the authority, or to the rules of the game. At this age, a child will always refer authority when asked the reason for his/her actions. For example, when a child is asked why he/she has worn clothes in a certain way, he/she may answer that it is because his/her mother taught him/her so. Children believe so much in rules and to them rules show the ultimate reality and no one can change their perspective of a certain action. Therefore, children view rules as embedded, and this causes immanent justice. Immanent justice is the way negative experiences are viewed as punishment for prior misdeeds. A child will always view someone who has done wrong even if it was accidental, as the guiltiest person since they only focus on only one dimension at a time. They do not check the intentions of the wrong doer, but the amount of damage done (Kendall, 2009).
In the second stage, also known as the autonomous morality, the moral judgment of the children are more self-governed, than on the basis of following what has been stipulated by the authority. They do not view the rules as the ultimate reality, but as social rules where agreements can be changed informally to suit a certain scenario. At this stage, this reaches the children at the age of 9 to 11; children have the capacity to reason that some circumstances can break rules, yet the right thing will be done. They will, therefore, consider the intentions of the lawbreaker than the rule of law (Rathus, 2008).
Among the theorists was Kohlberg who believed that there were kinds of information children need to use, and his theory also explains on the complexities of moral reasoning. His theory was an extension of the theory of Jean Piaget, and he proposed that moral development is a perpetual process that occurs in the whole life of an individual (Meggitt, 2006). In order to understand his reasoning, he gave a story of a woman who was near to death because she had a certain type of cancer. The doctors suggested a certain type of drug, but it was not readily available because it was expensive to manufacture. However, one druggist who was able to make it charged ten times more than what the drug cost him to make. Heinz, who was the woman’s husband, had to borrow money from everyone so that he could raise the amount to buy drugs. However, he could not reach the price and his wife’s condition was deteriorating. The druggist was determined to make money out of the drug because he had discovered it, and he was not ready to listen to any negotiations from Heinz. This made Heinz desperate until he resolved to steal the drug from the store so that his wife would be healed (Rathus, 2008).
Carol Gilligan bases her theory on judgment of right and wrong depending on the gender of a child. She criticizes Kohlberg’s theory to be biased against women since he only used males as his respondent. She, therefore, derived her approach from the response of females regarding their moral development. She argued that morality of rights and justice is premised in equality while morality of care and responsibility is based on nonviolence. From this, she was able to conclude that men are concerned with the law and order while women are more attentive on social consequences of behavior, and social relationships.
Ask DrSears. (2013). 5 stages of Moral Growth of Children. Ask DrSears. Retrieved from: http://www.askdrsears.com/topics/discipline-behavior/morals-manners/5-stages-moral- growth-children
Belknap, R.A. (2000). One woman’s life viewed through the interpretive lens of Gilligan’s theory. Violence Against Women, 6, 586-605.
Bloomquist, M. L. (2013). The practitioner guide to skills training for struggling kids. New York: Guilford Press.
Cawson, P., Gorin, S., Cleaver, H., & Walker, S. (2009). Safeguarding Children: A Shared Responsibility. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Gilligan, C., & Attanucci, J. (1988). Two moral orientations: Gender differences and similarities. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 34, 223-237.
Kendall, D. E. (2009). Sociology in our times. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Lefton, L. A. (2000). Child Development. In Psychology, (7th ed.) pp. 350-351, Allyn & Bacon publishing.
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child development: An illustrated guide. Oxford: Heinemann Educational.
Miller, R.S. (2012). Intimate Relationships (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Neihart, M., & National Association for Gifted Children (U.S.). (2002). The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know?. Waco, Tex: Prufrock Press.
New, R. S., & Cochran, M. (2006). Early childhood education [four volumes]: An international encyclopedia. Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers.
Young, L., & Alexander, B. (2012). The Chemistry Between Us: Love, Sex, and Science of Attraction. New York: Penguin Group (USA).